Table I: Harmful Effects Caused by Ritalin, Dexedrine, Adderall and Similar Stimulants


 

Cardio-

vascular Function

Brain and Mind Function

Gastro- intestinal

Function

Endocrine andMetabolic Function

Other Functions

Withdrawal and Rebound

Reactions

Palpitations

Tachycardia

Hypertension

Cardiac arrhythmia

Chest pain

Cardiac arrest

Mania, psychosis, hallucinations 

Agitation, anxiety, nervousness

Insomnia

Irritability, hostility, aggression

Depression, emotional sensitivity, easy crying, social withdrawal

Drowsiness, ‘dopey’, reduced alertness

Confusion, mental impairment (cognition and learning)

Zombie-like (robotic) behavior with loss ofemotional spontaneity

Obsessive-compulsive behavior

Convulsions

Dyskinesias, tics, Tourette’s

Nervous habits (e.g. picking at skin, pulling hair)

Anorexia

Nausea, vomiting, bad taste

Stomach 

ache, cramps

Dry mouth

Constipation, diarrhea

Abnormal liver function tests

Pituitary dysfunction, including growth hormone and prolactin disruption

Weight loss

Growth suppression

Growth retardation

Disturbed sexual function

Blurred vision

Headache

Dizziness

Hyper-sensitivity reaction with rash, conjunctivitis, or hives

Insomnia

Evening crash

Depression

Over-activity 

and irritability

Rebound worsening of ADHD-like symptoms

 

Modified from Breggin (1999a&c) by permission of Springer Publishing Company.The information is compiled from Arnold and Jensen (1995, Table 38-5, p. 2306; Table 38-7; and p. 2307), Drug Enforcement Administration(1995b, p. 23), Dulcan (1994, Table 35-6, p. 1217), Maxmen and Ward (1995, pp. 365-366), and Food and Drug Administration (1997c, March).Citations in Breggin (1999a&c).
   
 

 

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