Table II: Harmful Stimulant Effects Commonly Misidentified as ‘Therapeutic’ or ‘Beneficial’ for Children Diagnosed with ADHD.

 


Obsessive Compulsive Effects


Social Withdrawal Effects


Behaviorally Suppressive Effects

Compulsive persistence at meaninglessactivities (called stereotypical or perseverative behavior)

Increased obsessive compulsive behavior (e.g., repeating chores endlessly and ineffectively)

Mental rigidity (called cognitive perseveration)

Inflexible thinking

Overly narrow or excessive focusing 

Socially withdrawn and isolated

General dampened social behaviour

Reduced communicating or socializing

Decreased responsiveness to parents and other children

Increased solitary play and diminished overall play

Compliant in structured environments; socially inhibited, passive and submissive

Sombre, subdued, apathetic, lethargic, drowsy, dopey, dazed, and tired 

Bland , emotionally flat, humorless, not smiling, depressed, and sad with frequent crying

Lacking in initiative or spontaneity, curiosity, surprise or pleasure

Modified from Breggin (1999b&c), reprinted by permission of Springer Publishing Co. References to 20 clinical trials provided in Breggin (1999b&c).

 

 

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